Showing posts from June, 2016

Able Strategist

Lope de Aguirre
1518 to 1561 Spanish Conquistador
Lope de Aquirre was the self-proclaimed rebel leader of ill-fated descent of the Amazon River. Few sixteenth-century Spanish explorers have secured his notoriety. He was a soldier from Onate, in the province of Guipuzcoa, Spain, who joined the Pedro de Ursua expedition to the Amazon. Aguirre was one of the instigators of a plot to assassinate Ursua, and at first supported Fernando de Guzman to replace the slain Ursua. As the group traveled against great odds downstream, discipline disintegrated, Indian carriers were abandoned, and an increasing number of men were killed in brawls. Aguirre captained Guzman's militia, heading fifty Basque harquebusiers, which is a soldier armed with a portable gun called a harquebus. Paranoid filled with delusions of grandeur, he cowed followers and massacred Guzman and all others suspected of disloyalty.
Challenging the authority of king and church, Aguirre argued that the land belonged to the conqu…

Abjured Ambition

The River Shannon is the longest river in Ireland. It drains the Shannon River Basin which has an area of 6512 miles, one-fifth the area of Ireland. The Shannon divides the west of Ireland, the province of Connacht, from the east and south, Leinster and most of Munster. County Clare, being west of the Shannon but part of the province of Munster is the major exception. The river represents a major physical barrier between east and west with fewer than thirty crossing-points between Limerick city in the south and the village of Dowra in the north.  The river is named after Sionna, a Celtic goddess. The Shannon has been an important waterway since antiquity, having first been mapped by the Graeco-Egyptian geographer Ptolemy. The river flows generally southwards from the Shannon Pot in County Cavan before turning west and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean through the 64 miles long Shannon Estuary. Limerick city stands at the point where the river water meets the sea water of the estuary. …

Abject Submission

The Central African Chad Mission was a French military expedition sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively. With the death of the Muslim warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, the greatest ruler in the region, and the creation of the Military Territory of Chad in 1900, the mission accomplished all of its goals. However, this success followed numerous misadventures, including the refusal of the expedition commander and his second-in-command to follow orders from France, and their subsequent murder at the hands of their soldiers. In the end, only one of the nine Europeans leading the mission, Paul Joalland, reached Chad.

Structure and Directives
The mission to Lake Chad set out from Dakar in November of 1898. It moved through French Sudan, which is now Mali. It was composed of Senegal and West African troops. There were …

Abiding Romance

In the 2013 census, there were approximately 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Maori, making up roughly 15% of the population. They are the second largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 120,000 Maori people live in Australia. The Maori language is still spoken by about a fifth of the Maori people. Many New Zealanders regularly use Maori words and expressions. Maori are active in all parts of  New Zealand society and culture. Disproportionate numbers of Maori face significant economic and social obstacles.

In the Maori language, the word Maori means natural, normal, and native. In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary human beings from deities and spirits. It also denoted salt water from fresh water. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand generally referred to the indigenous people as New Zealanders or natives. The Maoris used the word Maori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. The Maori …

Jus soli

Jus soli is Latin for the rights of the soil. Folks who are born in a nation have specific rights based on their natural citizenship.
The idea of citizenship dates back to the sixth century B.C.
Citizenship and a sense of nationality is very important.
International law says that no human can be stateless.


What are indigenous people? Indigenous people are groups protected by legislature as having specific rights and privileges based on their ancestors.

The specific national and international legislation is based on the notion that many indigenous people are more apt to be exploited than other groups.

Asia contains the majority of indigenous people.

The Circassians are one of the world's oldest indigenous people.

The study of indigenous people and tribes is an excellent one for students. Middle schoolers love reading about other cultures.

Abbreviated Visit

Abbreviated Visit
The Maori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. The Maori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages at some time between 1250 and 1300 CE. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture that became known as the Maori, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts, and performing arts. Early Maori formed tribal groups, based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organization. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced, and later a prominent warrior culture emerged.

The arrival of Europeans to New Zealand starting from the 17th century brought enormous change to the Maori way of life. Maori people gradually adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Maori and Europeans were largely amicable,and with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the tow cultures coexisted as part of…

Abated Pride 2


Abated Pride

What is Leveled Questioning?

It is a type of questioning that is used before and after reading. This strategy is used to encourage students to increase their critical thinking through asking and responding to literal, interpretive, and evaluative questions.

Students are encouraged to become active thinkers within the learning process.

For this activity, students will need a reading passage that is geared to their independent reading level. They will need a sheet of paper or poster board, some pen or marker, and some leveled questions.

Use this strategy to introduce or review a topic, to activate students' awareness that there are various levels of thinking, to direct students to ask questions that deepen their level of understanding, to provide experiences that allow students to think about a topic from various perspectives, and to get students to think critically, while justifying their thinking.

Abandoned Hope

Essential Questions
What are the characteristics that make up a culture?
How do civilizations rise and fall?
What makes a culture unique?

Who is the Acoma? The Acoma People live in dwellings carved out of the very tall rock. So high, in fact, that their community is called "sky City." This area is thought to have had people living here longer than any other place in the United States. The Acomas have been here since the 10th century.

The Acoma are Pueblo People. Pueblo People are believed to have descended from the Anasazi, Mogollon, and other Ancient Peoples. These influences are seen in the architecture, farming style, and artistry of the Acoma. In the 13th Century, the Anasazi abandoned their canyon homelands due to climate change and social upheaval. For upwards of two centuries, migrations occurred in this area, and Acoma Pueblo would emerge by the 13th Century. This early founding date makes Acoma Pueblo one of the earliest continuously inhabited communities in the Un…